In this post, we are going to discuss how we can abuse Kerberos protocol remotely using Python libraries “Impacket” for conducting the lateral movement attack. You can download from here.
Table of Content
Impacket is a collection of Python classes for working with network protocols. Impacket is focused on providing low-level programmatic access to the packets and for some protocols (e.g. SMB1-3 and MSRPC) the protocol implementation itself.
Packets can be constructed from scratch, as well as parsed from raw data, and the object-oriented API makes it simple to work with deep hierarchies of protocols. The library provides a set of tools as examples of what can be done within the context of this library.
This script will attempt to list and get TGTs for those users that have the property ‘Do not require Kerberos preauthentication’ set (UF_DONT_REQUIRE_PREAUTH). For those users with such configuration, a John The Ripper output will be generated so you can send it for cracking.
python GetNPUsers.py -dc-ip 192.168.1.105 ignite.local/ -usersfile users -format john -outputfile hashes
As a result, the attacker will able to obtain the NTLM Hashes inside the output file Hashes and with the help of John the ripper he can go for password cracking as done here.
john --wordlist=/usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt hahses
This script is useful for abusing Kerberos against AS-REP Roasting attack.
This module will try to find Service Principal Names that are associated with a normal user account. Since normal account’s password tend to be shorter than machine accounts, and knowing that a TGS request will encrypt the ticket with the account the SPN is running under, this could be used for an offline brute-forcing attack of the SPNs account NTLM hash if we can gather valid TGS for those SPNs.
python GetUserSPNs.py -request -dc-ip 192.168.1.105 ignite.local/yashika
This script will create TGT/TGS tickets from scratch or based on a template (legally requested from the KDC) allowing you to customize some of the parameters set inside the PAC_LOGON_INFO structure, in particular the groups, extrasids, etc.
This will generate the ticket into ccache format which can be converted further into kirbi.
python ticketer.py -nthash f3bc61e97fb14d18c42bcbf6c3a9055f -domain-sid S-1-5-21-3523557010-2506964455-2614950430 -domain ignite.local raj
This script can be helpful for abusing Kerberos against GOLDEN TICKET ATTACK.
This script will convert kirbi files (commonly used by mimikatz) into ccache files used by impacket, and vice versa. As you can observe that the above script helps in generating the ccache file and with the of this script we can convert into kirbi.
python ticketConverter.py raj.ccache ticket.kirbi
This python script will request a TGT and save it as ccache for given a password, hash or aesKey. That we can be injected directory for access the requested service.
we have used getTGT to generate the ccache and used KERB5CCNAME pass the ccache file for the requested service. This is completely remote attack without using a local system of the compromised victim, but you need to compromise NTLM hashes for that, type following to conduct pass the ccache attack remotely.
python getTGT.py -dc-ip 192.168.1.105 -hashes :64fbae31cc352fc26af97cbdef151e03 ignite.local/yashika export KRB5CCNAME=yashika.ccache; psexec.py -dc-ip 192.168.1.105 -target-ip 192.168.1.105 -no-pass -k ignite.local/
And as result by injecting the ticket we have accessed the domain controller shell.
This script is useful in following attacks for abusing Kerberos:
- Kerberoasting and Pass the Ticket Attack Using Linux
- Lateral Movement: Pass the Cache
- Lateral Movement: Over Pass the Hash
This script will gather data about the domain’s users and their corresponding email addresses. It will also include some extra information about last logon and last password set attributes. If no entries are returned that means users don’t have email addresses specified. If so, you can use the -all-users parameter.
GetADUSers.py -all ignite.local/Administrator:Ignite@987 -dc-ip 192.168.1.105
As a result, it has dumped all username of the Activity Directory as shown in the image.
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